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Assessment & Measurement

Cercignani, Mara, et al. "Three-dimensional quantitative magnetisation transfer imaging of the human brain." NeuroImage 27.2 (2005):436-41. PMID: 15978842 >Read abstract

Covassin, T., R. Elbin 3rd, and J. L. Stiller-Ostrowski. 2009. "Current sport-related concussion teaching and clinical practices of sports medicine professionals." Journal of Athletic Training 44, (4) (Jul-Aug): 400-4. PMID: 19593422 >Read abstract

Covassin, T., R. J. Elbin 3rd, J. L. Stiller-Ostrowski, and A. P. Kontos. 2009. "Immediate post-concussion assessment and cognitive testing (ImPACT) practices of sports medicine professionals." Journal of Athletic Training 44, (6) (Nov-Dec): 639-44. PMID: 19911091 >Read abstract

Difiori, J. P., and C. C. Giza. 2010. "New techniques in concussion imaging." Current Sports Medicine Reports 9, (1) (Jan-Feb): 35-9. PMID: 20071919 >Read abstract

Ellemberg, Dave, Luke Henry, Steve Macciocchi, Kevin Guskiewicz, and Steven Broglio. 2009. "Advances in sport concussion assessment: From behavioral to brain imaging measures." Journal of Neurotrauma 26, (12): 2365-82. PMID: 19715396 >Read abstract

Guskiewicz, Kevin M, et al. "Measurement of head impacts in collegiate football players: relationship between head impact biomechanics and acute clinical outcome after concussion." Neurosurgery 61.6 (2007):1244-52; discussion 1252. PMID: 18162904 >Read abstract

Kelly, J. P., J. S. Nichols, C. M. Filley, K. O. Lillehei, D. Rubinstein, and B. K. Kleinschmidt-DeMasters. 1991. "Concussion in sports. Guidelines for the prevention of catastrophic outcome." JAMA : The Journal of the American Medical Association 266, (20) (Nov 27): 2867-9. PMID: 1942455 >Read abstract

Letovsky, S. I., S. H. Whitehead, C. H. Paik, G. A. Miller, J. Gerber, E. H. Herskovits, T. K. Fulton, and R. N. Bryan. 1998. "A brain image database for structure/function analysis." AJNR, American Journal of Neuroradiology 19, (10): 1869-77. PMID: 9874539 >Read abstract

Newcombe, Virginia, et al. "Mapping traumatic axonal injury using diffusion tensor imaging: correlations with functional outcome." PLoS ONE 6.5 (2011):e19214. PMID: 21573228 >Read abstract

Niogi, S N, et al. "Extent of microstructural white matter injury in postconcussive syndrome correlates with impaired cognitive reaction time: a 3T diffusion tensor imaging study of mild traumatic brain injury." AJNR, American journal of neuroradiology 29.5 (2008):967-73. PMID: 18272556 >Read abstract

Niogi, Sumit N, and PratikMukherjee. "Diffusion tensor imaging of mild traumatic brain injury." The journal of head trauma rehabilitation 25.4 (2010):241-55. PMID: 20611043 >Read abstract

Powell, J. W. 2001. "Cerebral concussion: Causes, effects, and risks in sports." Journal of Athletic Training 36, (3) (Sep): 307-11. PMID: 12937501 >Read abstract

Pudenz, R. H., and C. H. Shelden. 1946. "The lucite calvarium a method for direct observation of the brain cranial trauma and brain movement." Journal of Neurosurgery 3, (6): 487-505. PMID: 20279145 >Read abstract

Slobounov, Semyon M., K. Zhang, D. Pennell, W. Ray, B. Johnson, and W. Sebastianelli. 2010. "Functional abnormalities in normally appearing athletes following mild traumatic brain injury: A functional MRI study." Experimental Brain Research 202, (2) (Apr): 341-54. PMID: 20039023 >Read abstract

Vos, P E, et al. "Glial and neuronal proteins in serum predict outcome after severe traumatic brain injury." Neurology 62.8 (2004):1303-10. PMID: 15111666 >Read abstract

Xu, Jian, et al. "Diffuse axonal injury in severe traumatic brain injury visualized using high-resolution diffusion tensor imaging." Journal of neurotrauma 24.5 (2007):753-65. PMID: 17518531 >Read abstract

Zhang, K., B. Johnson, D. Pennell, W. Ray, W. Sebastianelli, and S. Slobounov. 2010. "Are functional deficits in concussed individuals consistent with white matter structural alterations: Combined FMRI DTI study." Experimental Brain Research. Jul;204(1):57-70. Epub 2010 May 23. PMID: 20496060 >Read abstract

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Bayly, P. V., T.S. Cohen, E.P. Leister, D. Ajo, E. Leuthardt, and G.M. Genin. "Deformation of the human brain induced by mild acceleration" Journal of Neurotrauma 2005 August ; 22(8): 845–856. PMID: 16083352 >Read abstract

Chafi, M.S., G. Karami, and M. Ziejewski. 2009. "Biomechanical Assessment of Brain Dynamic Responses Due to Blast Pressure Waves." Annals of Biomedical Engineering, Vol. 38, No. 2, February 2010 (Ó 2010) pp. 490–504 PMID: 19806456 >Read abstract

Chen, Anthony J.-W., Mark D'Esposito. 2010. "Traumatic Brain Injury: From Bench to Bedside to Society." Neuron 66, April 15, 2010 a2010 Elsevier Inc. PMID: 20399725 >Read abstract

DeKosky S.T., M.D. Ikonomovic, S. Gandy. 2010. "Traumatic Brain Injury — Football, Warfare, and Long-Term Effects." New England Journal of Medicine. Sep 30;363(14):1293-6. PMID: 20879875 >Read abstract

Duma, Stefan, and Steven Rowson. 2009. "Every newton hertz: A macro to micro approach to investigating brain injury." IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society Conference Proceedings 2009, : 1123-6. PMID: 19963988 >Read abstract

Feng, Y., T. M. Abney, R. J. Okamoto, R. B. Pless, G. M. Genin, and P. V. Bayly. 2010. "Relative brain displacement and deformation during constrained mild frontal head impact." Journal of the Royal Society Interface. PMID: 20504801 >Read abstract

Goldsmith, Werner, and Kenneth Monson. 2005. "The state of head injury biomechanics: Past, present, and future part 2: Physical experimentation." Critical Reviews in Biomedical Engineering 33, (2): 105-207. PMID: 15777159 >Read abstract

Hardy, W. N., C. D. Foster, M. J. Mason, K. H. Yang, A. I. King, and S. Tashman. 2001. "Investigation of head injury mechanisms using neutral density technology and high-speed biplanar X-ray." Stapp Car Crash Journal 45, : 337-68. PMID: 17458753 >Read abstract

Hardy, Warren, Matthew Mason, Craig Foster, Chirag Shah, James Kopacz, King Yang, Albert King, et al. 2007. "A study of the response of the human cadaver head to impact." Stapp Car Crash Journal 51, : 17-80. PMID: 18278591 >Read abstract

Hodgson, V. R., E. S. Gurdjian, and L. M. Thomas. 1966. "Experimental skull deformation and brain displacement demonstrated by flash x-ray technique." Journal of Neurosurgery 25, (5): 549-52. PMID: 5926321 >Read abstract

Ibrahim, Nicole G., Rahul Natesh, Spencer E. Szczesny, Karen Ryall, Stephanie A. Eucker, Brittany Coats, and Susan S. Margulies. 2010. "In situ deformations in the immature brain during rapid rotations." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering, Transactions of the ASME 132, (4) (Apr): 044501 (4 pp). PMID: 20387974 >Read abstract

Ivancevic, Vladimir G. "New mechanics of traumatic brain injury." Cognitive neurodynamics 3.3 (2009):281-93. PMID: 19031012 >Read abstract

Ji, S., and S. S. Margulies. 2007. "In vivo pons motion within the skull." Journal of Biomechanics 40, (1): 92-9. PMID: 16387309 >Read abstract

King, Albert I, King HYang, and Warren NHardy. "Recent firsts in cadaveric impact biomechanics research." Clinical anatomy 24.3 (2011):294-308. PMID: 21433079 >Read abstract

King, A. I., J. S. Ruan, C. Zhou, W. N. Hardy, and T. B. Khalil. 1995. "Recent advances in biomechanics of brain injury research: A review." Journal of Neurotrauma 12, (4): 651-8. PMID: 8683616 >Read abstract

Li, Jianrong, Jiangyue Zhang, Narayan Yoganandan, Frank Pintar, and Thomas Gennarelli. 2007. Regional brain strains and role of falx in lateral impact-induced head rotational acceleration." Biomedical Sciences Instrumentation 43, : 24-9. PMID: 17487052 >Read abstract

Margulies, S. S., L. E. Thibault, and T. A. Gennarelli. 1990. Physical model simulations of brain injury in the primate." Journal of Biomechanics 23, (8): 823-36. PMID: 2384494 >Read abstract

Meaney, David F, and Douglas HSmith. "Biomechanics of concussion." Clinics in sports medicine 30.1 (2011):19-31, vii. PMID: 21074079 >Read abstract

Nyein, Michelle K, et al. "In silico investigation of intracranial blast mitigation with relevance to military traumatic brain injury." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 107.48 (2010):20703-8. PMID: 21098257 >Read abstract

Ommaya, A. K. 1995. Head injury mechanisms and the concept of preventive management: A review and critical synthesis." Journal of Neurotrauma 12, (4): 527-46. PMID: 8683604 >Read abstract

Ruan, J. S., T. Khalil, and A. I. King. 1994. Dynamic response of the human head to impact by three-dimensional finite element analysis." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 116, (1): 44-50. PMID: 8189713 >Read abstract

Ruan, J S, TKhalil, and A I IKing. "Human head dynamic response to side impact by finite element modeling." Journal of biomechanical engineering 113.3 (1991):276-83. PMID: 1921354 >Read abstract

Sabet, Arash A, et al. "Deformation of the human brain induced by mild angular head acceleration." Journal of Biomechanics 41.2 (2008):307-15. PMID: 17961577 >Read abstract

Senathi Raja, Dawn, JenniePonsford, and MichaelSchnberger. "Impact of age on long-term cognitive function after traumatic brain injury." Neuropsychology 24.3 (2010):336-44. PMID: 20438211 >Read abstract

Zhang, L., K. H. Yang, and A. I. King. 2001. "Biomechanics of neurotrauma." Neurological Research 23, (2-3): 144-56. PMID: 11320593 >Read abstract

Zou, Hong, James Schmiedeler, and Warren Hardy. 2007. "Separating brain motion into rigid body displacement and deformation under low-severity impacts." Journal of Biomechanics 40, (6): 1183-91. PMID: 16919640 >Read abstract

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Clinical Outcomes

Chen, Anthony J. -W, and Mark D'Esposito. 2010. Traumatic brain injury: From bench to beside to society. Neuron 66, (1) (Apr 15): 11-4. PMID: 20399725 >Read abstract

Dick, R W. "Is there a gender difference in concussion incidence and outcomes?." British journal of sports medicine 43 Suppl 1(2009):i46-50. PMID: 19433425 >Read abstract

Ellemberg, Dave, Suzanne Leclerc, Sandra Couture, and Chantal Daigle. 2007. "Prolonged neuropsychological impairments following a first concussion in female university soccer athletes." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 17, (5): 369-74. PMID: 17873549 >Read abstract

Gardner, Andrew, E. Arthur Shores, and Jennifer Batchelor. 2010. "Reduced processing speed in rugby union players reporting three or more previous concussions." Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 25, (3) (2010): 174-81. PMID: 20202986 >Read abstract

Gronwall, D., and P. Wrightson. 1975. "Cumulative effect of concussion." The Lancet 2, (7943): 995-7. PMID: 53547 >Read abstract

Guskiewicz, Kevin M, et al. "Cumulative effects associated with recurrent concussion in collegiate football players: the NCAA Concussion Study." JAMA (Chicago, Ill.) 290.19 (2003):2549-55. PMID: 14625331 >Read abstract

Kovesdi, Erzsebet, et al. "The effect of enriched environment on the outcome of traumatic brain injury; a behavioral, proteomics, and histological study." Frontiers in Neuroscience 5(2011):42. PMID: 21503146 >Read abstract

Levine, B, et al. "The Toronto traumatic brain injury study: injury severity and quantified MRI." Neurology 70.10 (2008):771-8. PMID: 18316688 >Read abstract

Macleod, Sandy A. D. 2010. "Post concussion syndrome: The attraction of the psychological by the organic." Medical Hypotheses 74, (6) (Jun): 1033-5. PMID: 20129739 >Read abstract

McCrea, Michael, Kevin Guskiewicz, Stephen Marshall, William Barr, Christopher Randolph, Robert Cantu, James Onate, Jingzhen Yang, and James Kelly. 2003. "Acute effects and recovery time following concussion in collegiate football players: The NCAA concussion study." JAMA 290, (19): 2556-63. PMID: 14625332 >Read abstract

McKee, Ann C, et al. "Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy after repetitive head injury." Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 68.7 (2009):709-35. PMID: 19535999 >Read abstract

Park, Eugene, Jinglu Ai, and Andrew Baker. 2007. Cerebellar injury: Clinical relevance and potential in traumatic brain injury research." Progress in Brain Research 161, : 327-38. PMID: 17618988 >Read abstract

Potts, Matthew B., Hita Adwanikar, and Linda J. Noble-Haeusslein. 2009. Models of traumatic cerebellar injury." Cerebellum (London, England) 8, (3) (Sep): 211-21. PMID: 19495901 >Read abstract

Rabadi, M H, and B D DJordan. "The cumulative effect of repetitive concussion in sports." Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 11.3 (2001):194-8. PMID: 11495325 >Read abstract

Senathi-Raja, Dawn, J. Ponsford, M. Schonberger. 2010. "Impact of age on long-term cognitive function after traumatic brain injury." Neuropsychology 24, (3): 336-44. PMID: 18452739 >Read abstract

Waddell, P. A., and D. M. Gronwall. 1984. "Sensitivity to light and sound following minor head injury." Acta Neurologica Scandinavica 69, (5): 270-6. PMID: 6464666 >Read abstract

Warner, Matthew A, et al. "Assessing spatial relationships between axonal integrity, regional brain volumes, and neuropsychological outcomes after traumatic axonal injury." Journal of Neurotrauma 27.12 (2010):2121-30. PMID: 20874032 >Read abstract

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Health Behavior

Bovard, Ralph S. "Risk behaviors in high school and college sport." Current Sports Medicine Reports 7.6 (2008):359-66. PMID: 19005360 >Read abstract

Germeni, E., C. Lionis, B. Davou, and E. Th Petridou. 2009. "Understanding reasons for non-compliance in motorcycle helmet use among adolescents in greece." Injury Prevention 15, (1) (Feb): 19-23. PMID: 19190271 >Read abstract

Marsh, E., S. Connor, K. Wesolowski, and E. Grisoni. 2000. "Preventing bicycle-related head trauma in children." International Journal of Trauma Nursing 6, (4) (Oct-Dec): 117-22. PMID: 11035854 >Read abstract

Middleman, A. B., A. H. Faulkner, E. R. Woods, S. J. Emans, and R. H. DuRant. 1995. "High-risk behaviors among high school students in massachusetts who use anabolic steroids." Pediatrics 96, (2 Pt 1) (Aug): 268-72. PMID: 7630682 >Read abstract

Pate, Russell R., Stewart G. Trost, Sarah Levin, and Marsha Dowda. 2000. "Sports participation and health-related behaviors among US youth." Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine 154, (9): 904. PMID: 10980794 >Read abstract

Patel, D. R., and E. F. Luckstead. 2000. Sport participation, risk taking, and health risk behaviors." Adolescent Medicine 11, (1): 141-55. PMID: 10640343 >Read abstract

Sarmiento, Kelly, Jane Mitchko, Cynthia Klein, and Sharon Wong. 2010. "Evaluation of the centers for disease control and prevention's concussion initiative for high school coaches: "heads up: Concussion in high school sports". The Journal of School Health 80, (3): 112-8. PMID: 20236412 >Read abstract

Seaverson, Erin L. D., Jessica Grossmeier, Toni Miller, and David Anderson. 2009. "The role of incentive design, incentive value, communications strategy, and worksite culture on health risk assessment participation." American Journal of Health Promotion 23, (5): 343-52. PMID: 19445438 >Read abstract

Sun, C., D.D. Dyck, and V.J. Guillory. 2000. "The impact of school-organized sport activities on the priority youth health-risk behaviors." Annals of Epidemiology 10, (7): 451-2. PMID: 11018348 >Read abstract

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Bain, A C, and D F FMeaney. "Tissue-level thresholds for axonal damage in an experimental model of central nervous system white matter injury." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 122.6 (2000):615-22. PMID: 11192383 >Read abstract

Barkhoudarian, Garni, David AHovda, and Christopher CGiza. "The molecular pathophysiology of concussive brain injury." Clinics in Sports Medicine 30.1 (2011):33-48, vii. PMID: 21074080 >Read abstract

Buki, A., and J. T. Povlishock. 2006. All roads lead to disconnection?--traumatic axonal injury revisited." Acta Neurochirurgica 148, (2): 181,93 discussion 193. PMID:16362181 >Read abstract

Bey, Tareg, and B. Ostick. "Second impact syndrome." Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 10.1 (2009):6-10. PMID: 19561758 >Read abstract

Di Giovanni, Simone, et al. "Cell cycle inhibition provides neuroprotection and reduces glial proliferation and scar formation after traumatic brain injury." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 102.23 (2005):8333-8. PMID: 15923260 >Read abstract

Galbraith, J. A., L. E. Thibault, and D. R. Matteson. 1993. "Mechanical and electrical responses of the squid giant axon to simple elongation." Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 115, (1): 13-22. PMID: 8445893 >Read abstract

Johnson, Victoria E, WilliamStewart, and Douglas HSmith. "Widespread Tau and Amyloid-Beta Pathology Many Years After a Single Traumatic Brain Injury in Humans." Brain pathology (2011) PMID: 21714827 >Read abstract

Matsui, Yasuhiro, and TetsuyaNishimoto. "Nerve level traumatic brain injury in in vivo/in vitro experiments." Stapp Car Crash Journal 54(2010):197-210. PMID: 21512909 >Read abstract

Meythaler, J M, et al. "Current concepts: diffuse axonal injury-associated traumatic brain injury." Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 82.10 (2001):1461-71. PMID: 11588754 >Read abstract

Odell, Clay. 2002. "Diffuse axonal injury. the mysterious delicate nature of our fragile brain." JEMS 27, (5): 128,38, 140 quiz 144. PMID: 12004553 >Read abstract

Park, Eugene, Joshua DBell, and Andrew JBaker. "Traumatic brain injury: can the consequences be stopped?." Canadian Medical Association. Journal; CMAJ 178.9 (2008):1163-70. PMID: 18427091 >Read abstract

Sahuquillo, J., M. A. Poca, and S. Amoros. 2001. "Current aspects of pathophysiology and cell dysfunction after severe head injury." Current Pharmaceutical Design 7, (15): 1475-503. PMID: 11562294 >Read abstract

Sato, M, and L J JNoble. "Involvement of the endothelin receptor subtype A in neuronal pathogenesis after traumatic brain injury." Brain Research 809.1 (1998):39-49. PMID: 9795123 >Read abstract

Shaw, Nigel A. "The neurophysiology of concussion." Progress in Neurobiology 67.4 (2002):281-344. PMID: 12207973 >Read abstract

Smith, Douglas, David Meaney, and William Shull. 2003. "Diffuse axonal injury in head trauma." The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 18, (4): 307-16. PMID: 16222127 >Read abstract

Tang-Schomer, Min D., Ankur R. Patel, Peter W. Baas, and Douglas H. Smith. 2010. "Mechanical breaking of microtubules in axons during dynamic stretch injury underlies delayed elasticity, microtubule disassembly, and axon degeneration." The FASEB Journal : Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology 24, (5) (May): 1401-10. PMID: 20019243 >Read abstract

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Visual References

Closed head traumatic brain injury (TBI) - coup and contrecoup - medical illustration, human anatomy drawing, anatomy illustration [cited 5/7/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/7/2010).

Creation of finite element models of human body based upon tissue classified voxel representations [cited 5/30/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/30/2010).

Rhode island brain injury lawyers - karns law group , middletown, rhode island, personal injury, automobile accident lawyers, wrongful death attorneys. [cited 5/7/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/7/2010).

What is a concussion? on vimeo [cited 5/6/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/6/2010).

YouTube - 2D/3D medical animation: TBI - traumatic brain injury part I [cited 5/6/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/6/2010).

YouTube - concussion [cited 5/6/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/6/2010).

YouTube - debunking medical myths - the concussion [cited 5/4/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/4/2010).

YouTube - MohVisuals 3D litigation and trial graphics animation [cited 5/6/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/6/2010).

YouTube - sport related concussions [cited 5/6/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/6/2010).

YouTube - traumatic brain injury (TBI) part 2: 2D/3D medical animation [cited 5/4/2010 2010]. Available from (accessed 5/4/2010).

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Visual Strategies to Enhance Learning

Brenton, Harry, Juan Hernandez, Fernando Bello, Paul Strutton, Sanjay Purkayastha, Tony Firth, and Ara Darzi. 2007. "Using multimedia and Web3D to enhance anatomy teaching." Computers and Education 49, (1) (Aug.): 32-53. >Read abstract

Boucheix, Jean-Michel, R.K Lowe. "An eye tracking comparison of external pointing cues and internal continuous cues in learning with complex animations." Learning and Instruction (2010) Volume: 20, Issue: 2, Publisher: Elsevier Ltd, Pages: 123-135 >Read abstract

Flannery, Maura C. "Mirrors & maps: Two sides of metaphor." 2009. The American Biology Teacher 71, (6) (August): 371-4. >Read abstract

Garcia-Retamero, Rocio, and Mirta Galesic. 2010. "Who profits from visual aids: Overcoming challenges in people's understanding of risks." Social Science & Medicine 70, (7) (201004): 1019-25. PMID: 20116159 >Read abstract

Gow, George. 2007. "Visualization skills: A prerequisite to advanced solid modeling." Tech Directions 66, (8) (03): 22-3. >Read abstract

de Koning, Björn B.,  Huib K. Tabbers, Remy M.J.P. Rikers, Fred Paas. "Attention guidance in learning from a complex animation: Seeing is understanding?" Learning and Instruction. Volume 20, Issue 2, April 2010, Pages 111-122 >Read abstract

Li, Phan P., John Locke, Prakash Nair, and Andrew Bunting. 2005. "Creating 21st century learning environments." PEB Exchange (06). >Read abstract

Lilienfield, L S, and N C CBroering. "Computers as teachers: learning from animations." American journal of physiology 266.6 Pt 3 (1994):S47-54. PMID: 8017519 >Read abstract

Lowe, Richard K. 2003. "Animation and learning: selective processing of information in dynamic graphics." Learning and Instruction (2003) Volume: 13, Issue: 2, Publisher: Elsevier, Pages: 157-176 >Read abstract

Meyer, Katja, T. Rasch and W. Schnotz. 2010. "Effects of animation's speed of presentation on perceptual processing and learning." Learning and Instruction (2010) Volume: 20, Issue: 2, Publisher: Elsevier Ltd, Pages: 136-145 >Read abstract

Miller, Robert. 2000. "Approaches to learning spatial relationships in gross anatomy: Perspective from wider principles of learning." Clinical Anatomy 13, (6): 439-43. PMID: 11111896 >Read abstract

Nguyen, Ngan, and Timothy Wilson. 2009. "A head in virtual reality: Development of a dynamic head and neck model." Anatomical Sciences Education 2, (6): 294-301. PMID: 19890983 >Read abstract

Pommert, Andreas, Karl Hhne, Eike Burmester, Sebastian Gehrmann, Rudolf Leuwer, Andreas Petersik, Bernhard Pflesser, and Ulf Tiede. 2006. "Computer-based anatomy a prerequisite for computer-assisted radiology and surgery." Academic Radiology 13, (1): 104-12. PMID: 16399038 >Read abstract

Rydmark, M., T. Kling-Petersen, R. Pascher, and F. Philip. 2001. "3D visualization and stereographic techniques for medical research and education. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 81, : 434-9. PMID: 11317785 >Read abstract

Sajaniemi, Jorma, and Tuija Stutzle. 2007. "Lightweight techniques for structural evaluation of animated metaphors. Interacting with Computers 19, (4) (July): 457-71. >Read abstract

Serig, Daniel. 2008. "Understanding the conceptual landscape of visual metaphors." Teaching Artist Journal 6, (1) (01): 41-50. >Read abstract

Schubert, R., B. Pflesser, A. Pommert, K. Priesmeyer, M. Riemer, T. Schiemann, U. Tiede, P. Steiner, and K. H. Hhne. 1999. "Interactive volume visualization using 'intelligent movies'." Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 62, : 321-7. PMID: 10538380 >Read abstract

Temkin, Bharti, Eric Acosta, Paul Hatfield, Erhan Onal, and Alex Tong. 2002. "Web-based three-dimensional virtual body structures: W3D-VBS." Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA 9, (5) (Sep-Oct): 425-36. PMID: 12223495 >Read abstract

Trindade, Jorge, C. Fiolhais, and L. Almeida. 2002. "Science learning in virtual environments: A descriptive study." British Journal of Educational Technology 33, (4): 471-88. >Read abstract

Tversky, Barbara, J.B. Morrison and M. Betrancourt. 2002. "Animation: Can it facilitate?" International Journal of Human-Computer Studies Vol. 57: 247-62. >Read abstract

Ziemkiewicz, Caroline, and Robert Kosara. 2009. "Preconceptions and individual differences in understanding visual metaphors." Computer Graphics Forum 28, (3) (Jun): 911-8. >Read abstract

Ziemkiewicz, Caroline, and RobertKosara. "The shaping of information by visual metaphors." IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphic 14.6 (2008):1269-76. PMID: 18988973 >Read abstract

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